Greenstone conducted an extensive piece of research on social and environmental impact reporting.
Businesses are increasingly being judged on how they contribute to global issues such as economic
inequality, limited natural resources, pressures of climate change and environmental conservation.
For many stakeholders, it is no longer deemed sufficient for businesses to measure and report their
social and environmental performance without giving their figures further context in terms of their
impacts. In many cases, business strategies misallocate capital as they do not account for social and
environmental externalities and do not recognise long-term and sustainable value creation for all
While some of the positive impacts of business activities are evident, it is not as clear when it comes
to negative social and environmental effects of businesses actions, programs and investments.
Currently, both internal and external stakeholders of businesses are seeking more sophisticated
information that allows them to measure and value the socio-economic and environmental effects of
activities on the well-being of societies and the environment. Strategic decision-making and better
risk assessment requires us to think more holistically about the interaction of economic, social and
environmental dimensions in order to maximise the value creation and ensure that growth is
This 36-page report details the existing trends and challenges in the social and environmental impact measurement and reporting space and clarifies some misconceptions around terminology and valuation methodologies that currently exist in the field.
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